By Sharon Walker
This self-teaching advisor explains the fundamental ideas and basics in the entire significant subtopics of biotechnology. The content material advances logically from the fundamentals of molecular and mobile biology to extra complicated issues reminiscent of DNA, reproductive cloning, experimental tactics, infectious ailments, immunology, the Human Genome venture, new drug discoveries, and genetic issues.
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This self-teaching consultant explains the fundamental techniques and basics in the entire significant subtopics of biotechnology. The content material advances logically from the fundamentals of molecular and mobile biology to extra complicated themes equivalent to DNA, reproductive cloning, experimental techniques, infectious illnesses, immunology, the Human Genome venture, new drug discoveries, and genetic problems.
Additional info for Biotechnology Demystified
Peptide bonds: (a) are found in all biomolecules. (b) involve a link between a carbon and a nitrogen atom. (c) are ionic bonds. (d) result in a hydrophobic molecule. 6. Nucleic acids: (a) include organic bases. (b) include phosphorylated sugars. (c) are found in the nucleus. (d) contain the information structure of the cell. (e) all are correct. (f) a, c, and d are correct. 7. Hydrogen bonds: (a) are ionic bonds. (b) are covalent bonds. (c) are the bonds between the bases in DNA. (d) are important in explaining the behavior of water.
Hydrogen bonds form between side chains. Depending on which side chains are present and in what order, the molecule folds in on itself to form a particular shape. Proteins have a primary structure (linear), and as the molecule begins to fold in on itself, a secondary, tertiary, and a final shape form. This shape is important in allowing the protein to carry out its particular function. Chapter 8 will discuss protein metabolism (the production, use, and destruction of Figure 1-9 Peptide bond (Based on Figure 2-9 of Schaum's Outlines Molecular and Cell Biology by William D.
Move molecules around the cell. • Eliminate waste. • Have a means of duplicating the organism. Figure 2-1 Prokaryotic cell All cells have a lipid membrane and a watery, jelly-like substance on the inside, known as cytoplasm. The most primitive cells don't have interior compartments, other than a few vesicles for eliminating waste. These cells are known as prokaryotic cells, as shown in Figure 2-1. " The prokaryotic cells are so named because they were derived before chromatic material was organized into a nucleus, that is, before cells had a kernel.
Biotechnology Demystified by Sharon Walker