By Loren T. Stuckenbruck
The general public worship of the risen Christ as depicted in John's Apocalypse without delay contradicts the guiding angel's emphasis that simply God will be worshiped (Revelation 19:10; 22:8-9). In Angel Veneration and Christology, Loren Stuckenbruck explores this contradiction in mild of angel veneration in Early Judaism.
Stuckenbruck surveys a large choice of Jewish traditions on the topic of angelic worship and discovers proscriptions opposed to sacrificing to angels; prohibitions opposed to making photos of angels; rejections of the "two powers"; second-century Christian apologetic accusations in particular directed opposed to Jews; and, most significantly, the refusal culture, frequent in Jewish and Jewish-Christian writings, in which angelic messengers refuse the veneration of the seer and exhort the worship of God alone.
While proof for the perform of angel veneration among Jews of antiquity (Qumran, pseudepigraphal literature, and inscriptions from Asia Minor) doesn't provide the instant heritage for the worship of Christ, Stuckenbruck demonstrates that the actual fact that safeguards to a monotheistic framework have been issued in any respect throws mild at the Christian perform of worshiping Jesus. the best way the Apocalypse adapts the refusal culture illuminates Revelation's declarations approximately and depictions of Jesus. although the refusal culture itself in basic terms safeguards the worship of God, Stuckenbruck strains how the culture has been break up in order that the angelophanic parts have been absorbed into the christophany. As Stuckenbruck exhibits, an angelomorphic Christology, shared by means of the writer of Revelation and its readers, features to maintain the author's monotheistic emphasis in addition to to stress Christ's superiority over the angels―setting the degree for the worship of the Lamb in a monotheistic framework that doesn't contradict the angelic directive to worship God by myself.
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Additional info for Angel Veneration and Christology. A Study in Early Judaism and in the Christology of the Apocalypse of John
RICHARDS (Chico, CA: Scholars, 1982) 157-98. Scholarly Approaches to Christology construction writings has of reality. The in recent significance in the Apocalypse of this years been underscored among scholars to characterize of John dimension for by the 27 apocalyptic increasing reluctance the genre of "apocalypse" merely in terms of eschatology. Since this development affects our approach to the Apocalypse of John, i t bears further comment. Apocalyptic writings have frequently been characterized within an es- chatological framework.
Arise from Understood in this the broader light, eschatological motifs question concerning the nature can be said of the cosmos. to This thesis allowed VON RAD to account for the interest shown by apocalyptic au- lyptic basis during torical phia: 34. Though most of HANSON'S work is concerned with the origin of apoca eschatology during the post-exilic period, it provides an ideological for his contextualization of apocalyptic literature when i t flowered the late Second Temple period; see The Dawn of Apocalyptic.
2, 1987; vol. 3, 1989; vol. 4, 1991). 30 Introduction Most recently, however, new dimensions have been opened up with the publica tion of texts from Qumran which demonstrate that the creative exegesis of Ezekiel's vision of the Merkabah, or divine chariot throne, antedates consid84 erably the composition of the Apocalypse of John. documents, The interest of the Qumran broadly speaking, in God's throne within the ideal heavenly world of exemplary worship, divine order and celestial beings overlaps with traditions that considerably are taken over in many apocalyptic writings, including the Apocalypse of John.
Angel Veneration and Christology. A Study in Early Judaism and in the Christology of the Apocalypse of John by Loren T. Stuckenbruck