America Embattled by R. Crockatt PDF

By R. Crockatt

ISBN-10: 0203304497

ISBN-13: 9780203304495

ISBN-10: 0203355369

ISBN-13: 9780203355367

ISBN-10: 0415283418

ISBN-13: 9780415283410

ISBN-10: 0415283426

ISBN-13: 9780415283427

A reaction to the terrorist assaults of September eleventh, this paintings examines acts of terrorism in modern and ancient contexts, reading the explanations for such violent hatred at the usa and the numerous effect the assaults have had at the nation's self-image and experience of security.Each bankruptcy specializes in a unique point of view from which to view the terrorist assaults including-American overseas coverage, Anti-Americanism, post-Cold warfare politics and Islamic fundamentalism.

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59 Opponents of these values are hence not merely enemies of the United States but of universal values. It is easy to see how an encounter between such a stance and similarly universal claims by nations or cultures that hold to different principles could develop into confrontation. It did so with communism; the potential is there with Islam. 60 This issue will be taken up later. For the moment, it is important to stress the process by which a set of principles originally devised to bolster separation and a sense of difference can be transformed, under different conditions, into powerful tools of expansion or even exploitation.

Another is the resort to alternative forms of intervention—whether through covert means, support of proxy organizations, or air power—that do not incur the risks either of large numbers of casualties or politically damaging openended commitments. However, such means carry a cost to the extent that their full implications may be hidden from the American public. 25 Once again, it has to be said that these conclusions apply to some degree to all countries. Since foreign policy is closely allied with considerations of national security, all governments engage to a greater or lesser degree in secrecy, whether for genuine reasons of national security or for political reasons.

The phrase manifest destiny, which was first invoked in the 1840s, reflected assumptions about the inevitability and rightness (indeed righteousness) of American expansion. Secretary of State William Seward, described by one historian as “the central figure of nineteenth century American imperialism,” remarked on the completion in 1869 of the Union Pacific railroad linking the east and west coasts of the United States that “The world contains no seat of empire so magnificent as this which … offers supplies on the Atlantic shores to the over-crowded nations of Europe, while on the Pacific coast it intercepts the commerce of the Indies.

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America Embattled by R. Crockatt

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