By Kevin M. Cleaver
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89 Odaet, Implementing Educational Policies in Uganda No. 90 Achola, Implementing Educational Policies in Zambia No. 91 Maravanyika, Implementing Educational Policies in Zimbabwe No. 101 Russell, Jacobsen, and Stanley, International Migration and Development in Sub-Saharan Africa, vol. I: Overview No. 102 Russell, Jacobsen, and Stanley, International Migration and Development in Sub-Saharan Africa, vol. II: Country Analyses No. 132 Fuller and Habte, editors, Adjusting Educational Policies: Conserving Resources while Raising School Quality No.
All rights reserved Manufactured in the United States of America First printing February 1995 Discussion Papers present results of country analysis or research that are circulated to encourage discussion and comment within the development community. To present these results with the least possible delay, the typescript of this paper has not been prepared in accordance with the procedures appropriate to formal printed texts, and the World Bank accepts no responsibility for errors. Some sources cited in this paper may be informal documents that are not readily available.
In a few countries there has been, until recently, widespread land abundance combined with labor and capital scarcity. Many of the new technologies offered to African farmers increased output per unit of land by requiring additional labor and capital input (in the form of purchased inputs and equipment). This was the reverse of what was needed from the perspective of the African farmer who had generally little capital and labor, but could open new land. This situation was exacerbated in many African countries by government controls of agricultural prices, overvalued domestic currencies, and heavy taxation of agricultural exports, combined with neglect of rural infrastructure, which reduced the profitability of producing for the market.
Agriculture, poverty, and policy reform in Sub-Saharan Africa by Kevin M. Cleaver